Definition: Black hat SEO is a technique, in simple words, to get the top positions or higher rankings in the major search engines like Google, Yahoo and Bing that breaks the rule and regulations of search engine’s guidelines. See example of guidelines for google click here.
This worked at one time, now you still need the key words / search terms in your title and page content you need to ensure that you do not overuse the keywords / phrases as that will trip a search engine filter.
Google ( currently ) favors older sites, sites with history. In this approach you buy an expired domain with good metrics , build it up and add links to your sites giving a boost in ranking. This works, but it is costly to set set up and you need to use alias etc.
Paid For Links
Similar to PBN the aim is to get good quality links from high authority sites. Have a look at Fiverr where yo can buy such links. This is difficult for google to detect and it is also very effective.
Syndicated / Copied Content
Rather than creating good quality content use content copied from other sites, the content may be changed using automated techniques. Google is much better at detecting please refer to PANDA Update
Over Use of Key Words in Anchor Text
The anchor text tells google what your site is about example "fleet insurance" , but if you overuse or your backlinks look unnatural you will be penalized please refer to Penguin. Before Penguin this was very effective in getting ranked
Web 2.0 Links
Build a web site on Tumbler for example for the sole purpose of sending links to your money site
The process of writing a blog post for someone else’s blog is called guest blogging
Create an amazing article info graphic that other sites may use, if you include a link to your site in the article you get more back inks as a result ( natural acquisition of back links as opposed to paid )
Search engines evaluate the content of a web page, thus a web page might get higher ranking with more information. This will make it more valuable on the index and other web pages might link to your web page if it has a high standard in content.
Site optimization Design
Good menu navigation. Proper use of title tags and header tags, adding images with keyword alt tags, interlinking again with keyword anchor text. Create a, sitemap to get site crawled plus inform the spiders how often to visit site.
A good User Experience (UX)
This a broad term and overlaps some other areas mentioned example page load speed. The purpose to ensure that if a use click to go to your site they stay without clicking back to the serps immediately. Google is happy as this a quality signal as its main purpose to provide the user with relevant results.
Page Site Load Speed
Fast loading pages gives the user a good experience aim for under 3 seconds
Provide fresh content on a regular basis.